Male factor problems essentially fall into one of two categories: productive or obstructive. Problems with sperm production can stem from congenital (present at birth) problems with the testicle, hormone-related issues, varicose veins, environmental exposures, or cancer.
Obstructive issues impair the transport of sperm to the semen. Production within the testicle is usually at a normal level but a problem can occur with the outflow tract. Causes can include:
- Prior surgery
- Congenital abnormalities (problems that are present at birth)
- We often focus treatment on either reconstruction of the transport system or retrieval of sperm for use in assisted reproduction.